and piracy-related activities. This list includes both captains and prominent crew members. For a list of female pirates, see
Aruj, or Oruç, Reis was a Turkish privateer and later Admiral in Ottoman service who became known as Barbarossa – or Redbeard – amongst Christians.
Awilda was a 5th century pirate who, along with friends, dressed up as sailors and commandeered a ship.
Country of origin
Giorgio Adorno d. 1558
Knight of Malta active in the Mediterranean. Originally from Naples, he was elected "Captain-General of the Galleys" in 1547, 1549, 1557 and 1558.
James Alday 1516–1576
An English privateer. Raided Spanish ports with James Logan and William Cooke.
William Aleyn fl. 1448
English pirate active in the Thames and English Channel. Associate of William Kyd.
Richard Allen d. 1572
Jean Ango 1480–1551
A French ship-owner who provided ships to Francis I for exploration of the globe.
An Ottoman privateer and Bey (Governor) of Algiers and Beylerbey (Chief Governor) of the West Mediterranean.
Awilda 5th century
She and some of her female friends dressed like sailors and commandeered a ship.
Hayreddin Barbarossa 1478–1546
An Ottoman privateer and later Admiral who dominated the Mediterranean for decades.
Baldassare Cossa (Antipope John XXIII) 1370–1415
Antipope during the Western Schism, John XXIII was accused of—among other crimes— piracy, incest and sodomy.
Pier Gerlofs Donia 1480–1520
a Frisian warrior, pirate, freedom fighter, folk hero and rebel.
Eric of Pomerania 1382–1459
The first king of the Nordic Kalmar Union, he spent his last years living on the island of Gothland and "sent forth piratical expeditions against friend and foe alike".
Eustace the Monk c. 1170–1217
He was a mercenary for both England and France.
Alv Erlingsson d. 1290
He was a favorite of the Queen, yet committed countless acts of piracy throughout his life
Jean Fleury (Florin) fl. 1523
French privateer and naval officer under Jean Ango. Seized three Spanish ships carrying Aztec treasure from Mexico to Spain in 1523.
Magnus Heinason 1545–1589
Faroese naval hero and privateer. Was executed for piracy, though charges were later dropped.
Klein Henszlein d. 1573
A 16th century pirate who raided shipping in the North Sea until his defeat and capture by a fleet from Hamburg
Wijerd Jelckama 1490–1523
The nephew of Pier Gerlofs Donia (also known as Grutte Pier), fought along his side against the Saxon and Hollandic invaders.
William Kyd fl. 1430–1453
English pirate active in Southwest England during the early-to-mid-15th century.
Gödeke Michels d. 1402
A German pirate and one of the leaders of the Likedeeler, a combination of former Vitalienbrüder
Didrik Pining c. 1430–1491
A pirate and privateer operating in the North Sea. Often partnered with Hans Pothorst.
Hans Pothorst c.1440–1490
A pirate and privateer operating in the North Sea. Often partnered with Didrik Pining.
Salih Reis 1488–1568
A Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral.
Turgut Reis 1485–1565
A Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral as well as Bey of Algiers; Beylerbey of the Mediterranean; and first Bey later Pasha of Tripoli.
Klaus Störtebeker 1360–1401
He was a leader of the Victual Brothers.
Kristoffer Trondson (Rustung) c.1500–1565
A Norwegian nobleman-turned pirate and privateer. Operated in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Gave up piracy in 1542 and eventually became admiral of the Danish Fleet.
Hennig Wichmann 1370–1402
One of the leaders of the Likedeeler, an association of former Victual Brothers.
Cord Widderich d. 1447
A pirate active during political conflicts between Dithmarschen and North Frisia in the early 15th century.
Magister Wigbold 1365–1402
Often described as the brains behind the Victual Brothers.
Wimund b. 1147
He was a bishop who became a seafaring warlord adventurer.
Flemish pirate best known for his successful use of a ship-mounted catapult. Once won the favor of Robert the Bruce and acted as a Naval Officer for England during the Hundred Years' War (after being captured by King Edward III.)
The first man to intentionally circumnavigate the globe,
Thomas Cavendish also raided numerous Spanish towns and ships in the New World.
Uluj Ali was an Italian-born Muslim corsair, who later became an Ottoman admiral and Chief Admiral (Kaptan-ı Derya) of the Ottoman Fleet in the 16th century.
Known as "el Draque" (the Dragon), Sir
Francis Drake was considered a hero in England, but little more than a pirate in Spain.
After serving as a Spanish galley slave for four years,
Piet Hein later captured 11,509,524 guilders of cargo from the Spanish treasure fleet.
Gráinne O'Malley (left of frame) was an important figure in Irish legend who is still recognised in popular culture today.
Country of origin
Nicholas Alvel early 17th century
Active in the Ionian Sea.
Pedro Menéndez de Avilés 1519–1574
A Spanish Admiral and pirate hunter, de Aviles is remembered for his destruction of the French settlement of Fort Caroline in 1565.
Samuel Axe early 17th century
An English privateer in Dutch service, Axe served with English forces in the Dutch Revolt against Habsburg rule.
Andrew Barton 1466–1511
Served under a Scottish letter of marque, but was described a pirate by English and Portuguese.
Abraham Blauvelt d. 1663
One of the last Dutch corsairs of the mid-17th century, Blauvelt mapped much of South America.
Nathaniel Butler b. 1578
Despite a comparatively unsuccessful career as a privateer, Butler was later colonial governor of Bermuda.
Jan de Bouff early 17th century
de Bouff served as a Dunkirker in Habsburg service during the Dutch Revolt.
John Callis (Calles) c. 1558–1587?
Welsh pirate active along the southern coast of Wales.
Hendrik (Enrique) Brower 1581–1643
Brouwer was a privateer who fought the Habsburgs during the Dutch revolt, holding the city of Castro, Chile hostage for a period of two months.
Thomas Cavendish 1560–1592
The first man to intentionally circumnavigate the globe, Cavendish also raided numerous Spanish towns and ships in the New World.
Shirahama Kenki 16th-early 17th centuries
Japanese pirate and one of the first Japanese with whom the southern Vietnamese kingdom of the Nguyễn Lords made contact.
Matsuura Takanobu 1529–1599
One of the most powerful feudal lords of Kyūshū and one of the first lords to allow trading with Europeans
Peter Love d.1610
An English pirate who set up base in the Outer Hebrides and was active around Ireland and Scotland. He was betrayed by the outlaw Neil MacLeod and executed in 1610.
Zheng Zhilong (Cheng Chih Lung) 1604–1662
A convert to Christianity, Zhilon collaborated with Dutch forces, helping to create a monopoly on trade with Japan.
Zheng Jing (Cheng Chin) 1643–1682
Chinese pirate and warlord. The eldest son of Koxinga and grandson of Zheng Zhilong, he succeeded his father as ruler of Tainan and briefly occupied Fukien.
Wang Zhi 16th century
One of the chief figures amongst the wokou of the 16th century.
Francois le Clerc (Jambe de Bois) 16th century
Known for his sacking of Santiago de Cuba in 1554
Jacob Collaart 17th century
A Flemish admiral who served as privateer and one of the Dunkirkers in Spanish Habsburg service during the Dutch Revolt, responsible for the destruction of at least 150 fishing boats.
Claes Compaan 1587–1660
Former Dutch corsair and privateer, he later became a pirate and was successful in capturing hundreds of ships in Europe, the Barbary coast and West Africa.
Baltazar de Cordes d.1601?
A Dutch corsair who fought against the Spanish during the early 17th Century.
Simon (Zyman) the Dancer fl. 1606–1609
One of the leading Barbary corsairs, was based in Algiers and Tunis during the early 17th century.
Simon Danziker d. 1611
Dutch corsair and privateer who later became a Barbary corsair. He and John Ward dominated the Western Mediterranean during the early 17th century.
De Veenboer d. 1620
Former Dutch corsair and privateer. Later became a Barbary corsair under Simon the Dancer and eventually commanded the Algiers corsair fleet.
Uluj Ali (Giovanni Dionigi) 1519–1587
An Italian-born Muslim corsair, who later became an Ottoman admiral and Chief Admiral (Kaptan-ı Derya) of the Ottoman Fleet in the 16th century.
Francis Drake 1540–1596
Known as "el Draque" (the Dragon), he was considered a hero in England, but little more than a pirate in Spain.
Peter Easton 1570–1619
A privateer, then pirate, who was able to retire in Villefranche, Savoy with an estimated worth of two million pounds.
Jan Janszoon 1570–after 1641
Turkish service of the 'fleet from Salé'
Daniel Elfrith 1607–1640
English privateer and slave trader in the West Indies.
Dutch admiral and corsair.
Juan Garcia fl. 1622
One of the Spanish privateers who accompanied Jan Jacobsen on his last voyage in 1622.
Michael Geare c. 1565–?
Elizabethan Sea Dog active in the West Indies up until the turn of the 17th century.
John Hawkins 1532–1595
1554, 1564, 1567
A some-time pirate, his work in ship design was important during the threat of invasion from the Spanish Armada.
Piet Hein 1577–1629
After serving as a Spanish galley slave for four years, Hein later captured 11,509,524 guilders of cargo from the Spanish treasure fleet.
Pieter Adriaanszoon Ita fl. 1628–1630
Dutch corsair and privateer. Commanded one of the earliest and largest expeditions against the Portugal and Spain in the Caribbean during 1628.
Jan Jacobsen d. 1622
Flemish-born privateer in English service during the Eighty Years' War.
Willem Jacobszoon fl. 1624–1625
Dutch corsair who accompanied Pieter Schouten on one of the first major expeditions to the West Indies.
Jan Janz (Murad Rais) c. 1570–c. 1641
Dutch privateer taken captive by Barbary corsairs and later became one himself.
Willem Jansen fl. 1600
Dutch corsair based in Duinkerken and one time officer under Jacques Colaert.
Cornelius Jol 1597–1641
Dutch corsair successful against the Spanish in the West Indies. One of the first to use a wooden peg leg.
James Lancaster 1554–1618
Elizabethan Sea Dog active in India during the late 16th century. Later a chief director for the East India Company.
Guillaume Le Testu 1509–1573
French privateer, explorer and cartographer. First navigator to chart Australia in 1531.
Hendrick Jacobszoon Lucifer 1583–1627
Hendrick captured 1.2 million guilders from a Honduran treasure fleet, but was mortally wounded in the process.
Henry Mainwaring 1587–1653
English privateer and pirate hunter. His pirate fleet nearly broke the truce between England and Spain following the Anglo-Spanish War.
Olivier van Noort 1558–1627
Despite his venture being of limited success, it was the inspiration that led to the formation of the Dutch East India Company.
An English pirate active in Newfoundland.
Gráinne O'Malley (Gráinne Ní Mháille) 1530–1603
An important figure in Irish legend who is still present in popular culture today.
John Oxenham 1536–1580
Elizabethan Sea Dog and associate of Sir Frances Drake during the early years of the Anglo-Spanish War. First English privateer to enter the Pacific though Panama.
William Parker d. 1617
Elizabethan Sea Dog active in the West Indies. Successfully attacked Porto Bello in 1602 without firing a shot.
Pedro de la Plesa fl. 1622
He and Juan Garcia who joined Jan Jacobsen on his final voyage in 1622.
Murat Reis the Elder 1506–1608
A Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral who took part in all of the early naval campaigns of Turgut Reis.
Assan Reis (Jan Marinus van Sommelsdijk) fl. 1626
Former Dutch privateer turned Barbary corsair. He attacked the Dutch ship St. Jan Babtista under Jacob Jacobsen of Ilpendam on March 7, 1626.
James Riskinner (Reiskimmer) 17th century
A lieutenant on the ship Warwick, then part of a fleet under the command of Nathaniel Butler, he later took part in a privateering expedition between May–September 1639.
Isaac Rochussen 1631–1710
A Dutch corsair active against the English during the Second and Third Anglo-Dutch War. His capture of The Falcon, an East India merchantman, was one of the most valuable prizes captured during the late-17th century.
Mahieu Romboutsen fl. 1636
Dutch corsair in the service of Spain. Was part of a three ship squadron under Jacques Colaert and was captured with him after a five hour battle with Jan Evertsen.
William Rous fl. 1636–1645
Dutch corsair and privateer based on Providence Island. He was involved in privateering expeditions for the Providence Island Company and later commander of Fort Henry.
Jan van Ryen d. 1627
Dutch corsair active in the West Indies. Reportedly killed with a number of colonists attempting to establish one of the first colonies on the Wiapoco in Dutch Guiana.
Pieter Schouten fl. 1624–1625
Dutch corsair who led one of the Dutch expeditions to the West Indies.
Jacques de Sores 16th century
A French pirate whose sole documented act was his attack and burning of Havana in 1555.
Dirck Simonszoon van Uitgeest fl. 1628–1629
Dutch corsair who commanded a WIC expedition to Brazil bringing back over 12 Portuguese and Spanish prizes.
Francis Verney 1584–1615
English nobleman who left behind his inheritance to become a Barbary corsair.
Johannes van Walbeeck fl. 1634
Dutch admiral and corsair. Captured Curaçao in 1634 and later served as governor.
John Ward 1552–1622
A notorious English pirate around the turn of the 17th century who later became a Barbary Corsair operating out of Tunis during the early 1600s.
Cornelis Wittebol fl. 1622
Dutch corsair in Spanish service. In February 1622, attacked a fishing fleet from the Veere and Maasmond sinking several ships and bringing back the survivors to ransom in Duinkerken.
Jacob Willekens 1571–1633
Dutch admiral who led Dutch corsairs on the first major privateering expedition to the West Indies.
Hendrik Worst fl. 1624
Dutch corsair who accompanied Pieter Schouten in his expedition to the West Indies.
Filips van Zuylen fl. 1624
Dutch corsair active against the Portuguese in West Africa.
Moses Cohen Henriques early 17th century
1620s and 1630s
Dutch pirate of Portuguese Sephardic Jewish origin active in the Caribbean against Spain and Brazil against Portugal
Jean Bart was born the son of a fisherman, he was able to retire as an Admiral in French service on the strength of his captures during his time as a privateer.
William Dampier was the first Englishman to explore or map parts of New Holland (Australia) and New Guinea, and was also the first person to circumnavigate the world three times.
Known only for a single attack against a Spanish galleon (pictured),
Pierre le Grand's existence is disputed.
François l'Ollonais was nicknamed "Flail of the Spaniards" and had a reputation for brutality – offering no quarter to Spanish prisoners.
Roche Braziliano had a reputation for violence, and once roasted two Spanish farmers when they refused to hand over their pigs.
Country of origin
Vincenzo Alessandri d. 1657
Originally a Knight of Malta, Alessandri was captured and enslaved.
Michiel Andrieszoon 17th century
Dutch merchant-pirate. Associated with Thomas Paine and Laurens de Graff.
John Ansell d. 1689
Sailed with Henry Morgan and participated in his raids against Maracaibo and Gibraltar, Venezuela.
Captain Archembeau (Archembo) d. 1681
French buccaneer active in the Caribbean.
Jean Bart 1651–1702
Born the son of a fisherman, Bart retired an Admiral in French service.
Philippe Bequel 17th century
Was one of the first foreign privateers awarded a letter of marque by the governor of Jamaica
Jacob Janssen van den Bergh fl. 1660
Dutch corsair and slave trader for the Dutch West India Company.
Lancelot Blackburne 1653–1743
Blackburne was an English clergyman, who became Archbishop of York, and – in popular belief – a pirate.
Eduardo Blomar d. 1679
Spanish renegade active in the Spanish Main during the 1670s. Tried in absentia and convicted of piracy with Bartolomé Charpes and Juan Guartem in Panama in 1679.
Pierre Bot 17th century
French buccaneer active in the Caribbean.
Manuel Butiens fl. 1645
Dutch renegade and Dunkirker in the service of Spain.
Bartolomé Charpes d. 1679
Spanish renegade who was tried in absentia and convicted of piracy with Edwardo Blomar and Juan Guartem in Panama by Governor Don Dionicio Alceda in 1679.
Edward Collier 17th century
Served as Sir Henry Morgan's second-in-command throughout much of his expeditions against Spain during the mid-17th century.
John Cooke (Cook) d. 1683
English buccaneer who led an expedition against the Spanish in the early 1680s.
John Coxon d. 1689
One of the most famous of the Brethren of the Coast, a loose consortium of pirates and privateers who were active on the Spanish Main.
William Dampier 1651–1715
Was the first person to circumnavigate the world three times.
Edward Davis 17th century
Led the last major buccaneer raid against Panama.
John Davis (Robert Searle) 17th century
Davis was one of the earliest and most active buccaneers on Jamaica.
Jacquotte Delahaye 17th century
Delahaye was a French Buccaneer, and together with Anne Dieu-Le-Veut was one of very few female buccaneers.
Anne Dieu-Le-Veut b. 1650
Was originally one of the women – "Filles de Roi" – sent by the French government to Tortuga to become wives to the local male colonists.
Charlotte de Berry 17th century
A female pirate, she later commanded her own ship.
Cornelius Essex d. 1680
An English buccaneer who took part in Captain Bartholomew Sharp's privateering expedition, the "Pacific Adventure", during the late 1670s.
Laurens de Graaf 1653–1704
Characterised as "a great and mischievous pirate" by Henry Morgan, de Graaf was a Dutch pirate, mercenary, and naval officer in the service of the French colony of Saint-Domingue.
Michel de Grammont 1645–1686
A French buccaneer, de Grammont primarily attacked Spanish holdings in Venezuela.
Jean du Casse 1646–1715
Born to Huguenot parents, du Casse was allowed to join the French navy on the value of his prizes taken while a buccaneer.
Alexandre Exquemelin 1645–1707
A French writer, most known as the author of one of the most important sourcebooks of 17th century piracy, De Americaensche Zee-Roovers.
Jean Foccard 17th century
Associate of Laurens de Graaf and Michel de Grammont. He later joined them in their attack on Tampico in 1682.
"Red Legs" Greaves 17th Century
Greaves's nickname was based on a commonly used term for reddened legs often seen among the Scottish and Irish who took to wearing kilts in almost any weather.
Juan Guartem 17th century
A Spanish renegade pirate who raided Spanish settlements in New Spain during the late 17th century with his most notable raid being against Chepo in 1679.
Peter Harris d. 1680
English buccaneer and member of Captain Bartholomew Sharp's "Pacific Expedition". Killed at Panama in 1680.
Jean Hamlin (Hamilton) 17th century
French buccaneer active in the Caribbean. Later hunted down by Captain John Coxon.
Richard Hawkins 1562–1622
A buccaneer and explorer who was later knighted.
George Hout (d'Hout) fl. 1687
English buccaneer who joined Francois Grogniet and Pierre le Picard in their raid on Guayaquil in 1687.
François l'Olonnais 17th century
c. 1635–c. 1668
French pirate active in the Caribbean during the 1660s. He may have been cannabalized by the natives of Darién Province
William Jackson 17th century
It was the fleet under his command that captured Jamaica for England.
Bartholomeus de Jager fl. 1655
Dutch corsair active against the Portuguese. He attacked a small merchant fleet at Fernando Noronha capturing one merchant ship and driving off the other.
Daniel Johnson 1629–1675
Became known as "Johnson the Terror" amongst the Spanish.
William Knight 17th century
Along with Edward Davis, he took part in the final large buccaneer attack on Spanish holdings.
Pierre Le Grand 17th century
Known only for a single attack against a Spanish galleon, his existence is disputed.
Raveneau de Lussan b. 1663
An impoverished nobleman. Attacked targets in Central America. Known for a “long march” in 1688.
Thomas Magott (Mackett) 17th century
English buccaneer who sailed with Bartholomew Sharp and others on the "Pacific Adventure".
Edward Mansvelt (Mansfield) d. 1666
Dutch buccaneer in English service. Known as the Admiral of the " Brethren of the Coast", Mansvelt was a mentor to Sir Henry Morgan who succeeded him following his death.
Marquis de Maintenon 1648–1691
A French nobleman who became a buccaneer in the Caribbean, selling his castle and title to Madame de Maintenon
David Marteen 17th century
Known primarily as the sole non-English Captain who participated in the raids against Spanish strongholds in present-day Mexico and Nicaragua.
Daniel Montbars (Exterminator) 1645–1701?
A former French naval officer and gentleman adventurer, he engaged in a violent and destructive war against Spain in the Caribbean and the Spanish Main. His hatred of the Spanish earned him the name "Montbars the Exterminator".
Henry Morgan 1635–1688
A privateer (and pirate) who later retired to become Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica.
John Morris 17th century
A skilled pilot, he served with both Christopher Myngs and Henry Morgan before becoming a pirate hunter.
Christopher Myngs 1625–1666
Described as "unhinged and out of tune" by the governor of Jamaica, Myngs nevertheless became a Vice-Admiral of the Blue in the Royal Navy.
François l'Ollonais (Jean-David Nau) 1635–1668
Nicknamed "Flail of the Spaniards", l'Ollonais had a reputation for brutality, offering no quarter to Spanish prisoners.
Pierre Le Picard fl. 1666–1690
An officer under l'Ollonais, he and Moise Vauquelin left to pursue a career on their own. He later served in King William's War.
Chevalier du Plessis d. 1668
French privateer active in the West Indies. He was succeeded by Moise Vauquelin following his death.
Jean de Pointis 1635–1707
His greatest venture was the 1697 Raid of Cartagena.
Thomas Pound d. 1703
Briefly commanded a small ship near Massachusetts before being captured.
Bartolomeu Português b. 1630
One of the earliest pirates to use a pirate code.
Lawrence Prince fl. 1659–1672
Dutch buccaneer in English service. An officer under Sir Henry Morgan, he and John Morris led the vanguard at Panama in 1671.
Roche Braziliano 17th century
Roasted two Spanish farmers alive when they refused to hand over their pigs.
Philip Ras fl. 1652–1655
Captured several English ships as both a corsair and privateer during the First Anglo-Dutch War.
Thomas Paine 17th century
A colonial American privateer who raided several settlements in the West Indies with Jan Willems, most notably against Rio de la Hacha in 1680. He also drove the French from Block Island.
Manuel Ribeiro Pardal d. 1671
Portuguese privateer in the service of Spain. One of the few successful privateers active against the buccaneers of the Caribbean during the late 17th century.
Stenka Razin 1630–1671
A Cossack pirate who operated on the Volga and later expanded into the Caspian Sea.
Richard Sawkins d. 1680
Participated, along with John Coxon and Bartholomew Sharp, in the surprise attack on Santa Marta
Lewis Scot fl. 1663
Known for his attack on the city of Campeche, on the Yucatan Peninsula.
Bartholomew Sharp 1650–1690
Plundered 25 Spanish ships and numerous small towns.
Gustav Skytte 1637–1663
Attacked ships in the Baltic Sea, along with other accomplices of noble descent.
Bernard Claesen Speirdyke fl. 1663–1670
Dutch buccaneer active in the Caribbean, he was captured by Captain Manuel Ribeiro Pardal near Cuba and later executed.
Charles Swan 17th century
A reluctant pirate, he begged for a pirate even as he looted his way around South America.
Jacques Tavernier (Le Lyonnais) 1625–1673
French buccaneer who took part in expeditions with Laurens de Graaf, Michel de Grammont, Pierre Le Grand, François l'Ollonais and Sir Henry Morgan before his execution in 1673. His existence is disputed as the only pre-20th century reference to him appears in Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography.
Nicholas (Nikolaas) van Hoorn 1635–1683
Merchant, privateer and later pirate, van Hoorn was hugely successful before dying of wound infection.
Cornelis Janszoon van de Velde fl. 1655
Dutch corsair active near the Antillen, he was briefly associated with Bartholomeus de Jager.
Moise Vauquelin (Moses Vanclein) fl. 1650–1672
An officer under l'Ollonais, he also had a partnership with Pierre le Picard. In his later years, he wrote a book detailing the coastline of Honduras and the Yucatan along with fellow buccaneer Philippe Bequel.
Lionel Wafer 1640–1705
An explorer whose work helped inspire the Darien Scheme.
Yankey (Janke) Willems fl. 1681–1687
Dutch buccaneer active in the Caribbean.
William Wright 17th century
Despite being English, Wright was active as a privateer under a French commission. He later became a buccaneer.
The most successful pirate of the Golden Age of Piracy,
Black Bart was estimated to have captured more than 470 vessels.
With his fearsome appearance,
Blackbeard is often credited with the creation of the stereotypical image of a pirate.
Despite never commanding a ship herself,
Anne Bonny is remembered as one of few female historical pirates.
Henry Every (or Avery) is famous as one of the few pirates of the era who was able to retire with his takings without being either arrested or killed in battle.
Although modern historians dispute the legitimacy of his trial and execution, the rumour of
Captain Kidd's buried treasure has served only to build a legend around the man as a great pirate.
Nicknamed "la Buse" (the Buzzard) for the speed with which he attacked his targets,
Olivier Levasseur left behind a cryptic message that has yet to be deciphered fully today.
Country of origin
Thomas Anstis d. 1723
Was mainly active in the Caribbean, and served under first Howell Davis and later Bartholomew Roberts.
Adam Baldridge ?
fl. c. 1685–1697
English pirate and one of the early founders of the pirate settlements in Madagascar.
Bartholomew Roberts (Black Bart) 1682–1722
The most successful pirate of the Golden Age of Piracy, estimated to have captured more than 470 vessels.
George Booth d. 1700
One of the earliest pirates active in the Indian Ocean and Red Sea.
John Bowen d. 1704
Was active in the Indian Ocean, his contemporaries included George Booth and Nathaniel North.
Samuel Bellamy (Black Sam) 1689–1717
Despite having a career of less than year, Bellamy was extraordinarily successful, capturing more than 50 ships before his death at age 28.
Blackbeard (Edward Teach) 1680–1718
With his fearsome appearance, Blackbeard is often credited with the creation of the stereotypical image of a pirate.
Black Caesar d. 1718
A captured slave turned pirate, Black Caesar was a well-known pirate active off the Florida Keys during the early 18th century. He later acted as a lieutenant to Blackbeard and was one of five Africans serving on his flagship.
Stede Bonnet 1688–1718
Nicknamed "The Gentleman Pirate", Bonnet was born into a wealthy family before turning to piracy.
Rahmah ibn Jabir al-Jalahimah 1760–1826
The most famous pirate in the Persian Gulf, he was appointed as a ruler of Dammam and went into a piracy against Al-Khalifa in Bahrain.
Anne Bonny 1698–1782
Despite never commanding a ship herself, Anne Bonny is remembered as one of few female historical pirates.
Nicholas Brown d. 1726
Active off the coast of Jamaica, Brown was eventually killed – and his head pickled – by childhood friend John Drudge.
Sir Christopher Chapman 1774
Active off coast of Florida and Jamaica. Captain of the Shawn Towne started as a privateer but turned to piracy. Executed in London in a public flogging after sieging the HMS Mugavero. Template:Fact
Dirk Chivers early 18th century
Active in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, Chivers later retired from piracy and returned to the Netherlands.
Thomas Cocklyn early 18th century
1717 to death
Primarily known for his association with Howell Davis and Oliver La Buze, Cocklyn's activities after 1719 are unknown.
Christopher Condent d. 1770
After entering into piracy in 1718, Condent later took a prize of £150,000 and retired to France, becoming a wealthy merchant.
William Condon d. 1721
Captaining the Fiery Dragon, Condon was killed when she caught fire and sank.
Robert Culliford early 18th century
The former first mate of William Kidd, Culliford led a first mutiny against Kidd, stealing his ship Blessed William.
Alexander Dalzeel 1662–1715
Served under Henry Every. Was captured four times before finally being hanged.
Howell Davis 1690–1719
Having a career that lasted only 11 months, Davis was ambushed during an attempt to kidnap the governor of Príncipe.
Edward England 1690–1720
Differing from many other pirates of his day, England did not kill captives unless necessary.
John Evans d. 1723
After an unsuccessful career as a legitimate sailor, Evans turned to piracy – initially raiding houses from a small canoe.
Henry Every (Avery) b. 1653
Famous as one of the few pirates of the era who was able to retire with his takings without being either arrested or killed in battle.
John Fenn d. 1723
Sailed with Bartholomew Roberts and, later, Thomas Anstis.
William Fly d. 1726
Raided off the New England coast before being captured and hanged at Boston, Massachusetts.
Ingela Gathenhielm 1692–1729
Widow of Lars Gathenhielm, active on the Baltic Sea.
Lars Gathenhielm 1689–1718
Active on the Baltic Sea
Charles Harris d. 1723
Joining the Barbary corsairs, Harris converted to Islam before being captured and later hanged.
John Halsey d. 1708
Active in the Atlantic and Indian oceans, Halsey is remembered by Defoe as "brave in his Person, courteous to all his Prisoners, lived beloved, and died regretted by his own People."
Miguel Henríquez b. 1680
early 18th century
Spain / Puerto Rico
Although born a shoemaker, Henríquez was later awarded a letter of marque by Spain for his actions against the British.
Benjamin Hornigold d. 1719
Known for being less aggressive than other pirates, Hornigold once captured a ship for the sole purpose of seizing the crew's hats.
Thomas Howard early 18th century
Howard served under both George Booth and John Bowen and later commanded the Prosperous.
"Calico Jack" John Rackham 1682–1720
Earned his nickname for the colourful calico clothes that he wore.
Henry Jennings d. 1745
Although later governor of the pirate haven of New Providence, Jennings only carried out two pirate acts – gaining an estimated 410,000 pesos.
John Julian d. 1733
Recorded as the first black pirate to operate in the New World.
James Kelly (James Gilliam) d. 1701
Active in the Indian Ocean, Kelly was a long-time associate of William Kidd.
William "Captain" Kidd 1645–1701
Although modern historians dispute the legitimacy of his trial and execution, the rumor of Captain Kidd's buried treasure has served only to build a legend around the man as a great pirate. His property was claimed by the crown and given to the Royal Hospital, Greenwich, by Queen Anne.
Olivier Levasseur (Oliver La Buse) 1680–1730
Nicknamed "la Buse" (the Buzzard) for the speed with which he attacked his targets, Levasseur left behind a cryptic message that has yet to be deciphered fully today.
Edward "Ned" Low 1690–1724
A pirate known for his vicious tortures, his methods were described as having "done credit to the ingenuity of the Spanish Inquisition in its darkest days".
George Lowther d. 1723
Active in the Caribbean and the Atlantic, one of Lowther's lieutenants included Edward Low.
Christopher Moody d. 1718
Active off North and South Carolina, Moody offered no quarter to captured crews, signified by his flying of a red standard.
Nathaniel North b. 1672
Active in the Indian Ocean and Red Sea, North served with other famous contemporaries, including John Bowen and George Booth.
William Phillips d. 1724
Phillips had his leg amputated by a John Phillips after being shot.
James Plantain early 18th century
Plantain ruled the island of Madagascar between 1725 and 1728, primarily through fear, and was known as the "King of Ranter Bay".
John Quelch 1666–1704
Quelch was the first person tried for piracy outside England under Admiralty Law and therefore without a jury.
Mary Read 1690–1721
Along with Anne Bonny, one of few female historical pirates. When captured, Read escaped hanging by claiming she was pregnant, but died soon after of a fever while still in prison.
Woodes Rogers 1679–1732
Played a major role in the suppression of pirates in the Caribbean.
Francis Spriggs d. 1725
Along with George Lowther and Edward Low, Spriggs was primarily active in the Bay of Honduras during the early 1720s.
John Taylor early 18th century
At Reunion Island, Taylor is reputed to have captured the most valuable prize in pirate history.
Thomas Tew d. 1695
Despite only going on two pirate voyages, Tew pioneered a route later known as the Pirate Round.
Charles Vane 1680–1720
Disliked due to his cruelty, Vane showed little respect for the pirate code, cheating his crew out of their shares in the takings.
Richard Worley d. 1719
Credited as one of the first pirates to fly the skull and crossbones pirate flag.
Emanuel Wynn early 18th century
Was the first pirate to fly the Jolly Roger. His design, however, also incorporate an hourglass below the skull.
Country of origin
Peter Alston 1765–1804
River pirate, highwayman, and counterfeiter, alias James May, who was believed to be an associate of the Samuel Mason and Micajah "Big" Harpe and Wiley "Little" Harpe.
Louis-Michel Aury 1788–1821
French privateer, served to the Republics of Venezuela and Mexico.
Joseph Baker d. 1800
The single piratical action of his career consisted of an unsuccessful attempt to commandeer the sloop Eliza.
Renato Beluche 1780–1860
A known associate of the Lafitte Brothers active in the Caribbean before joining Simon Bolivar in his fight for South American independence.
Benito Bonito 1780–1821
Pirate who supposedly hid his treasures of Lima in the cliffs of Australia, or in Coco Island.
Hippolyte de Bouchard 1780–1843
A French and Argentine sailor who fought for Argentina, Chile and Peru.
Flora Burn fl. 1741
Female pirate active mainly off the East coast of North America from 1741.
Henri Caesar early 18th century
Haitian pirate active in the Caribbean during the early 18th century.
Eric Cobham and Maria Lindsey 1700–1760
Cobham and his wife, Maria, were primarily active in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
Colonel Plug (Colonel Fluger) ?-?
The legendary outlaw ran a gang of river pirates, in an Illinois cypress swamp, at the mouth of the Cache River and the Ohio River, was known as the "Last of the Boat-Wreckers."
James Ford 1770?–1833
A civic leader and business owner in western Kentucky and southern Illinois, secretly, was the leader of a gang of river pirates and highwaymen, along the Ohio River, known as the "Ford's Ferry Gang."
Hezekiah Frith Early 19th century
British ship owner and smuggler known as Bermuda's "gentleman privateer". Alleged to have used his business as a cover to withhold cargo sized in privateering expeditions and amass a small fortune.
Vincent Gambi d. 1820
A pirate based out of New Orleans, he was an associate of Jean Lafitte.
José Gaspar (Gasparilla) 1756–1821
Though a popular figure in Florida folklore, there is no pre-20th century evidence of his existence.
Catherine Hagerty and Charlotte Badger early 19th century
Australian convicts. Among a group of convicts taken on board a shorthanded ship as crew. The convicts commandeered the ship and sailed for New Zealand. Hagerty was put ashore and died, Badger was never seen again.
Micajah and Wiley Harpe 1768–1799 (Micajah) 1770–1804 (Wiley)
1797–1799 (Micajah) 1797–1804 (Wiley)
America's first known serial killers, were Loyalists as well as river pirates and highwaymen, who preyed on travelers along the Ohio River and the waterways of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Illinois. The Harpe Brothers were associates of Samuel Mason and Peter Alston.
Bill Johnston 1782–1870
Nicknamed "Pirate of the Thousand Islands".
Edward Jordan 1771–1809
Irish rebel, fisherman and pirate of Nova Scotia.
Jorgen Jorgensen 1780–1841
Danish adventurer and writer, he was captured by the British as a privateer during the Napoleonic Wars.
Jean Lafitte c. 1776–1826?
French pirate (or privateer) active in the Gulf of Mexico during the early 1800s. A wanted fugitive by the United States, he later participated in the Battle of New Orleans on the side of the Americans.
Pierre Lafitte 1770–1821
French pirate, and lesser-known brother of Jean Lafitte, active mainly in the Gulf of Mexico.
Sam Hall Lord 1778–1844
Sam Lord was one of the most famous buccaneers on the island of Barbados.
Kazimierz Lux 1780–1846
The Polish Pirates of the Caribbean.
Samuel Mason 1739–1803
Initially, an Revolutionary War Patriot captain in the Ohio County, Virginia militia and an associate judge and squire in Kentucky, Mason later, ran a gang of highway robbers and waterways river pirates.
John A. Murrell 1806?–1844
Near-legendary bandit, known as the "Great Western Land Pirate," ran a gang of river pirates and highwaymen along the Mississippi River.
Province of Pennsylvania
Rachel and her husband George Wall were active off the New Hampshire coast until George and the crew were washed out to sea. She was hanged in Boston on 8 October 1789.
Alexander White d. 1784
East Coast of America
Hanged for piracy in Cambridge, Massachusetts in November 1784.
East Coast of America
Hanged for piracy in Cambridge, Massachusetts in November 1784.
Dominique You 1775–1830
Acquired a reputation for daring as a pirate. Retired to become a politician in New Orleans.
Roberto Cofresi was Puerto Rico's most famous pirate and was regarded by many as the Puerto Rican equivalent of Robin Hood.
Paul Watson (silver hair) has had his confrontational tactics branded as piratical by some organisations.